Gurm, wan joe chen, amir keyvanmanesh, takeshi abe. Am218a and 218b simple wheel and axle and wheel and. Find mechanical advantage, velocity ratio and efficiency of wheel and axle experiment by cbr. When two gear wheels are mounted on the same axle, they both turn at the same speed. Imagine a spinning bicycle wheel hanging from a rope. If students suggest wheel and axle, pull out the two skateboards. Tm 122 wheel and differential axle apparatus us didactic. As per the current central motor vehicles rules an all wheel drive. The wheel and differential axle is secured to a shaft supported on ball bearings. The wheel and axle is a machine consisting of a wheel attached to a smaller axle so that these two parts rotate together in which a force is transferred from one. Mechanical principles outcome 4 mechanical power transmission tutorial 1 simple machines simple machines. The wheel and axle will always rotate at the same speed. A wheel and differential axle was set up with strings enclosed around each section of the wheel in a particular direction. Do you not agree that the essence of the wheel and axle is that it transmits optionally multiplies forces or torques via an axle which carries a torquejimbowley 10.
Components of a fourwheeldrive system howstuffworks. When effort is applied to rotate the assembly at that time string is wound over larger axle d1 and unwound from the smaller axle d2. In the automobile industry, the mechanical losses resulting from friction are largely responsible for various kinds of surface damage, such as the scuffing occurring in some mechanical assemblies. Due to the bigger circumference of the wheel, the surface of the wheel will turn at a greater speed and with a greater distance too. In addition, optimization of the motor housing is performed to reduce mass and improve strength of the in wheel motor housing according to the test specification of weight transfer from the tire patch. As the wheel and axle rotate, the wheel moves a greater distance than the axle, but it takes less effort to move it. An axle is a central shaft for a rotating wheel or gear. Axle bearing axle seal axle shaft wheel stud cap race race ring gear carrier bearing carrier bearing shims shims ring gear bolts differential differential and axle parts identification typical semifloat rear axle exploded view open differential internals exploded view filler plug side gear ring gear thrust washer thrust washer cross pin. Pdf an experimental research on power losses into an. Ase 3 manual drivetrain and axles module 6 rear axles 68 rear wheel driveline features student workbook the rear axle is part of the powertrain of a rearwheeldrive vehicle.
I wrote a compete article on this process which you can read for detailed info. The term powertrain is used to describe the parts of a vehicle which make the drive wheels move. Report generation, user progression monitoring and statistics. Differential axle and wheel consisting of effort wheel, larger axle, smaller axle, thread, pan, weights theory. One of the most popular modifications to any 14bolt axle used in an offroad truck is to remove the huge, heavy drum brakes and swap to disc brakes.
Around the corner how differential steering works 1937 duration. That force would have to be transmitted through the axle from one wheel to another, putting a heavy strain on the axle components. In this case, load axle bc is made up of two parts of different diameters. The apparatus that was used for the experiment was. Efficiency test of a machine worm and worm wheel the worm and wheel this simple machine is usually used for lifting heavy objects, for steering gears and for traversing tables in machine tools. Jul 21, 2015 in simple machines, kids experiment with wheels and axles by sending a cyclist through an obstacle course. Multiple actuators are arranged right above rail sleepers along rail direction. These devices allow an allwheeldrive system to function properly on any surface.
Integrated design of inwheel motor system on rear wheels. Wheel and axle video explains the relationship between friction and force. Moreover, there is a further electrohydraulically controlled lock differential in the rear axle which is also up to 100% effective. Stabilizer bar to axle housing side bracket differential carrier to rear axle housing brake tube flare nut propeller shaft attaching nut bearing case to rear axle housing rear axle bearing lock nut filler plug drain plug companion flange differential case to drive gear bearing cap lock plate lubricants nm ft. Set up limitedslip differential mathematical modeling. The two continuous rails are connected to the rail sleepers via fastening systems and are cut into discrete independent rail segments right above the rail sleeper. Multiply the force applied to the wheel by this ratio to get the force applied at the axle. There are several simple ratios used for the analysis of a machine. In between the differential and the driving wheels is the rear axle to transmit power from the differential to the driving wheels. The wheel and differential axle are secured to a shaft that runs in bearings within a sturdy wall mounting bracket. T s steering wheel torque t d driver torque t r reaction torque to a driver t f front axle wheel torque t f front axle wheel reference torque t rtrs reaction torque from road surface t a power.
Like most things on modern automobiles, the simple piece of gearing known as a differential has seen constant refinement and experimentation leading to a range of types each with their own advantages and disadvantages. A multidisc clutch can also be installed that can lock the differential electromagnetically up to 100%, depending on the torque requirement front to rear axle. Three anodised aluminium pulleys of different diameter are fitted to a shaft mounted on ball bearings. Aug 02, 2018 science experiments wheel and axle is a simple science project for middle school students who are interested in science experiments and science expo works which can be done at home are classroom.
To study the performance of differential axle and wheel and find its velocity ratio, efficiency and law of machine etc apparatus. Two case studies were investigated, with frontwheel and rearwheel drive passenger cars. The objective of this experiment is to calculate and predict the time taken for a wheel to roll on its axle down a slope using energy methods and consequently 2 differential wheel and axle abstract the lab report was on differential the apparatus that was used for the experiment was. Pdf validation of rear axle with differential lock for off. Combined with an axle shaft, the wheel and axle are used in numerous modern technologies, especially in the transportation sector. Jan 07, 2012 differential wheel and axle in this machine load axle is made in two parts having two different diameters d1 and d2. The concept of the differential that is, to allow wheels mounted on the same axle to rotate independently of each other. The forces act, on the one hand, directly on the peripheral of the largest pulley, on the other hand, via a loose pulley on two smaller pulleys. This could be a viscous coupling, center differential or other type of gearset. The wheel and axle is a machine consisting of a wheel attached to a smaller axle so that these two parts rotate together in which a force is transferred from one to the other. In this case, the differential axle is made up of two pulleys of different diameters and the wheel is made up of a pulley with a major diameter than the pulleys of. Design and analysis of drive shaft for heavy duty truck.
Calculation of velocity ratio,mechanical advantage,frictional effort lost and efficiency. The speeds of rotation of the axle and the wheel are also related by this ratio. Limitedslip differential and vehicle control stability mathematical modeling are built with simulation software. Kiran a, jagtap1 pg scholar, me automotive engineering. The wheel is one of the oldest invented devices that is included under the simple machines category. In this activity, you can see how wheels and axles work by getting outside and going for a ride together. As part of your investigation you need to examine the principles of angular motion and. Experimental verification of reaction torque control based. Empirical equations are presented that for shallow covers more accurately model the measured data than do the analytical and numerical methods studied. The tractor has 1 front steering axle and 2 rear axles. A hinge or bearing supports the axle, allowing rotation. The aim was to test a wheel and differential axle for its velocity ratio and its load effort characteristics. It makes you wonder what the difference is between a 1series front axle and a gen1 2series front axle.
Velocity ratio, mechanical advantage and efficiency. Introduction the objective was to test a wheel and differential axle for its velocity ratio and its load or effort characteristics. Their algorithm assumes the steering at the rear axles is proportional to the 1 graduate student. Great for new teachers, student teachers, homeschooling and teachers who like creative ways to teach. Placing a load on a wheeled vehicle almost always reduces friction compared to dragging it over the ground.
When cornering, the inner wheel needs to travel a shorter distance than the outer wheel, so with no differential, the result is the inner wheel spinning. There are some simple measurements that can be used to find the properties of a machine. Design vehicle control stability mathematical modeling. Tm 122 wheel and differential axle apparatus equilibrium of forces and moment 1 demonstration of the force reduction on a differential pulley block technical description the model demonstrates the conditions of equilibrium on a differential. A simple experiment with an egg will help explain the behavior of the viscous coupling. Experiments have been conducted based on central composite rotatable design matrix.
Integrated design of inwheel motor system on rear wheels for. Torque split between left and right drive shaft over a front wheel drive differential. On wheeled vehicles, the axle may be fixed to the wheels, rotating with them, or fixed to the vehicle, with the wheels rotating around the axle. Using the measured distances 100mm to 500mm, intervals of 100mm travelled by the wheel and the expressions i. Wheel and differential axle updated labsheet university of. Wheel and axle vr r1r2 differential pulley chain hoist vr 2rrr if r is close to the same radius as r. Three anodised aluminium pulleys of different diameter are. Torque split between left and right drive shaft over a.
Differential wheel and axle in this machine load axle is made in two parts having two different diameters d1 and d2. The wheel and axle is classified as one of the six simple machines the other five are the lever, pulley, inclined plane, wedge and screw. On the gen1 2series front axles they use 80w90 gear oil. On the mechanical friction losses occurring in automotive. Like most things on modern automobiles, the simple piece of gearing known as a differential has seen constant refinement and experimentation leading to a range of types each with their own advantages and disadvantages the concept of the differential that is, to allow wheels mounted on the same axle to rotate independently of each other is an ancient design, with the first. A solid wheel and axle is held at the top of an incline, released and allowed to roll down the incline for a given distance. Experimental verification of reaction torque control based on driver sensitivity to active front steering 15 fig. Wheel and axle, basic machine component for amplifying force. Both the front drive and rear drive differential have the same job to do. Tm 122 wheel and differential axle apparatus equilibrium of forces and moment 1 demonstration of the force reduction on a differential pulley block technical description the model demonstrates the conditions of equilibrium on a differential pulley block. If the pdf does not display below, you may also download it here. Aim of the laboratory experiment to determine the effort required to lift a load and efficiency of lifting by a wheel and differential axle. How to calculate the mechanical advantage for a wheel and axle.
Its principle of operation is demonstrated by the large and small gears attached to the same shaft, as shown at a in the illustration. Dead axles simply remain stationary, do not move with the wheels. Differential pinion gears walk around slower side gear and cause other side gear to turn faster the percentage of speed that is removed from one wheel is given to the other types of axle housings integral carrier type the differential assembly is mounted in and supported by the axle housing. Invite them to figure out how to use the skateboards to help move the load. To predict the time taken for a wheel to roll on its axle, down. The worm and wheel is used to transfer drive through 90o usually incorporating a high gear ratio and output torque. Simple axle and wheel, differential axle and wheel, weston. The model demonstrates the conditions of equilibrium on a differential pulley block. Us9747395b2 simulated loading method and apparatus for. Bearings or bushings are provided at the mounting points where the axle is supported. The invention discloses a kind of limitedslip differential adjusting process of kart, including step. Basic wheel and axle examples and how their forces are applied.
You are to use an energy method to determine the radius of gyration for the solid body. Thus, a locking mechanism, or limited slip differential allows one wheel to slip or spin freely while some torque is delivered to the other wheel hopefully on dry land. These scuffing processes seem to be due to a local loss of lubrication between certain mechanical elements of the same assembly, leading to a sharp increase in the friction. You calculate the mechanical advantage of a wheel and axle by taking the ratio of the wheel radius to that of the axle. Pdf analysis of wheel hub motor drive application in. A housing completely encloses the rear axles and the differential, protecting them from water, dust and injury, in addition to mounting their inner bearings and providing a container of the lubricant. Find mechanical advantage, velocity ratio and efficiency. It is clear from the construction of the differential, that the rear axle is not a single piece, but it is in two halves connected by the differential, one part is known as the half shaft. View lab report wheel and differential axle updated labsheet from cvng 2009 at uwic. Indeed, you cannot design an experiment without knowing something about the range of. The present invention discloses a simulated loading method and an apparatus for moving load of a wheel axle in rail transportation. If one of the wheels attached to a differential decides to hit some ice, for example, it slips and spins with all of the speed the differential has to distribute. In this paper, integrated design of in wheel motor system on the rear axle for small electric vehicle is investigated. Since this technique links the steering wheel to the front axle via a differential gear, the.
The final drive is composed of a bevel gear or pinion and crown wheel. Differential axle and wheel machine simple machines in. The shaft is mounted on ball bearings, in order to reduce the frictional. The results obtained from using the proposed model are in. This video relates is relates with the differential a very important part of an automobile during turning. The wheel and differential axle unit, mrye2, is an improved version of the simple wheel and axle, in which the velocity ratio is intensified.
Differentialbrakingbased rollover prevention for sport. Wheel and axle experiment guide download pdf see how cranes can function as pulleysmachines with wheels and axlesto lift and move heavy loads with this guide from eisco. Rearwheeldrive vehicles have three separate powertrain members. Analysis of wheel hub motor drive application in electric vehicles. Finally, not only all the conclusions and results are written down, but also some vehicle dynamics simulations to show the effect of the differential in the. In todays scenario, rear axle with differential lock arrangement is one of the key required parameter for military vehicles. The experiment was conducted in groups of four, and was supervised by lecturer mr. This is necessary when cornering, since the inner wheel rotates with a lower angular velocity than the outer wheel, due to the larger curve radii of the latter. In this tutorial we will be learn differential axle and wheel machine simple machines in engineering mechanics. The kit introduces students to key engineering terms such as. The axle flanges are rigidly attached to the testbed. In this paper, integrated design of inwheel motor system on the rear axle for small electric vehicle is investigated.
Modeling and optimization of odometry error in a two. When this occurs with the conventional type of differential unit the wheel just spins and no power is transmitted to the other wheel. The transfer case on a parttime fourwheeldrive system locks the frontaxle driveshaft to the rearaxle driveshaft, so the wheels are forced to spin at the same speed. Laboratory experiment and analytical studies jaspreet s. Single pulley block, 2 knurled nuts, 2 weight hooks, set of. Loads of different weight were attached to one section of the system and effort was applied to the other with consistency of the wound. The center of the wheel and axle is the fulcrum of the rotating lever. Sep 25, 2018 basic wheel and axle examples and how their forces are applied. Energy method release od or radius r after descent h v msec m kg i kg.
The simplest wheel and axle has a large wheel and a cylinder that are fastened together and turn together. This video tutorial will be very helpful to our engineering students. Placing a load on a wheeled vehicle almost always reduces friction compared to dragging it. Even in 2wd the front tires are driving the front differential and spinning the drive shaft. Read this sciencestruck post to gain more information about this type of simple machine. In its earliest form it was probably used for raising weights or water buckets from wells. The name for a gear wheel that is turned by an outside force such as that from a motor or from a. Differential can be used in rear or front axle or in both, depending on drive, 2 wheel. Wheel and axle experiment guide download pdf see how cranes can function as pulleysmachines with wheels and axles to lift and move heavy loads with this guide from eisco.424 1331 872 379 1161 1110 334 177 1474 1094 913 895 930 1289 323 504 15 146 251 1158 129 342 1246 952 1269 701 691 1346 714 1165 779 771 425 478 1279 208 194 936 714 1234 1239 836 503 400 945 1249 419 110